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Germanium in Magnetite: A Preliminary Review
Yumiao MENG;  Ruizhong HU;  Xiaowen HUANG;  Jianfeng GAO
Source PublicationActa Geologica Sinica

Magnetite is a very common mineral in various types of iron deposits and some sulfide deposits. Recent studies have focused on the use of trace elements in magnetite to discriminate ore types or trace ore-forming process. Germanium is a disperse element in the crust, but sometimes is not rare in magnetite. Germanium in magnetite can be determined by laser ablation ICP-MS due to its low detection limit (0.0X ppm). In this study, we summary the Ge data of magnetite from magmatic deposits, iron formations, skarn deposits, iron oxide copper-gold deposits, and igneous derived hydrothermal deposits. Magnetite from iron formations contains relatively high Ge (up to approximate to 250 ppm), whereas those from all other deposits mostly contains Ge less than 10 ppm, indicating that iron formations can be discriminated from other Fe deposits by Ge contents. Germanium in magmatic/hydrothermal magnetite is controlled by a few factors. Primary magma/fluid composition may be the major control of Ge in magnetite. Higher oxygen fugacity may be beneficial to Ge partition into magnetite. Sulfur fugacity and temperature may have little effect on Ge in magnetite. The enrichment mechanism of Ge in magnetite from iron formations remains unknown due to the complex ore genesis. Germanium along with other elements (Mn, Ni, Ga) and element ratios (Ge/Ga and Ge/Si raios) can distinguish different types of deposits, indicating that Ge can be used as a discriminate factor like Ti and V. Because of the availability of in situ analytical technique like laser ablation ICP-MS, in situ Ge/Si ratio of magnetite can serve as a geochemical tracer and may provide new constraints on the genesis of banded iron formations.

KeywordGermanium Magnetite Controlling Factor Iron Deposits Discriminate Factor
Document Type期刊论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Yumiao MENG;Ruizhong HU;Xiaowen HUANG;Jianfeng GAO. Germanium in Magnetite: A Preliminary Review[J]. Acta Geologica Sinica,2017,91(2):711-726.
APA Yumiao MENG;Ruizhong HU;Xiaowen HUANG;Jianfeng GAO.(2017).Germanium in Magnetite: A Preliminary Review.Acta Geologica Sinica,91(2),711-726.
MLA Yumiao MENG;Ruizhong HU;Xiaowen HUANG;Jianfeng GAO."Germanium in Magnetite: A Preliminary Review".Acta Geologica Sinica 91.2(2017):711-726.
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